North America Butterfly Photos

Photos by Will Cook of 267 butterflies species found in northern North America (United States and Canada), mostly taken in North Carolina, Virginia, Texas, and Oregon.

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Papilionidae - Parnassians and Swallowtails

Pipevine Swallowtail (Battus philenor)
Polydamas Swallowtail (Battus polydamas)
Zebra Swallowtail (Eurytides marcellus)
Black Swallowtail (Papilio polyxenes)
Giant Swallowtail (Papilio cresphontes)
Eastern Tiger Swallowtail (Papilio glaucus)
Appalachian Tiger Swallowtail (Pterourus [Papilio] appalachiensis)
Western Tiger Swallowtail (Papilio rutulus)
Spicebush Swallowtail (Papilio troilus)
Palamedes Swallowtail (Papilio palamedes)
Ornythion Swallowtail (Papilio ornythion)
Ruby-spotted Swallowtail (Papilio anchisiades)


Pieridae - Whites and Sulphurs

Whites (Pierinae)
Pine White (Neophasia menapia)
Florida White (Appias drusilla)
Checkered White (Pontia protodice)
West Virginia White (Pieris virginiensis)
Cabbage White (Pieris rapae)
Margined White (Pieris marginalis)
Great Southern White (Ascia monuste)
Giant White (Ganyra josephina)
Olympia Marble (Euchloe olympia)
Falcate Orangetip (Anthocharis midea)

Sulphurs (Coliadinae)
Clouded Sulphur (Colias philodice)
Orange Sulphur (Colias eurytheme)
Southern Dogface (Colias cesonia)
Cloudless Sulphur (Phoebis sennae)
Large Orange Sulphur (Phoebis agarithe)
Orange-barred Sulphur (Phoebis philea)
Statira Sulphur (Aphrissa statira)
Lyside Sulphur (Kricogonia lyside)
Barred Yellow (Eurema daira)
Tailed Orange (Pyrisitia proterpia)
Little Yellow (Pyrisitia lisa)
Mimosa Yellow (Pyrisitia nise)
Dina Yellow (Pyrisitia dina)
Sleepy Orange (Abaeis nicippe)
Dainty Sulphur (Nathalis iole)

Lycaenidae - Gossamer-wings

Harvesters (Miletinae)
Harvester (Feniseca tarquinius)

Coppers (Lycaeninae)
American Copper (Lycaena phlaeas)
Purplish Copper (Lycaena helloides)
Lilac-bordered Copper (Lycaena nivalis)
Mariposa Copper (Lycaena mariposa)

Hairstreaks (Theclinae)
Golden Hairstreak (Habrodais grunus)
Atala (Eumaeus atala)
Great Purple Hairstreak (Atlides halesus)
Hessel's Hairstreak (Callophrys hesseli)
Juniper Hairstreak (Callophrys gryneus)
Xami Hairstreak (Callophrys xami)
Brown Elfin (Callophrys augustinus)
Frosted Elfin (Callophrys irus)
Henry's Elfin (Callophrys henrici)
Eastern Pine Elfin (Callophrys niphon)
Oak Hairstreak (Satyrium favonius)
Coral Hairstreak (Satyrium titus)
Sylvan Hairstreak (Satyrium sylvinus)
Hickory Hairstreak (Satyrium caryaevorum)
Edwards's Hairstreak (Satyrium edwardsii)
Banded Hairstreak (Satyrium calanus)
King's Hairstreak (Satyrium kingi)
Striped Hairstreak (Satyrium liparops)
Hedgerow Hairstreak (Satyrium saepium)
Behr's Hairstreak (Satyrium behrii)
Sagebrush Sooty Hairstreak (Satyrium semiluna)
Silver-banded Hairstreak (Chlorostrymon simaethis)
Fulvous Hairstreak (Electrostrymon angelia)
Red-banded Hairstreak (Calycopis cecrops)
Dusky-blue Groundstreak (Calycopis isobeon)
Gray Hairstreak (Strymon melinus)
Red-crescent Scrub-Hairstreak (Strymon rufofusca)
White Scrub-Hairstreak (Strymon albata)
Lacey's Scrub-Hairstreak (Strymon alea)
Martial Scrub-Hairstreak (Strymon martialis)
Mallow Scrub-Hairstreak (Strymon istapa)
Lantana Scrub-Hairstreak (Strymon bazochii)
Bartram's Scrub-Hairstreak (Strymon acis)
Clytie Ministreak (Ministrymon clytie)
White M Hairstreak (Parrhasius m-album)
Early Hairstreak (Erora laeta)

Blues (Polyommatinae)
Cassius Blue (Leptotes cassius)
Marine Blue (Leptotes marina)
Cyna Blue (Zizula cyna)
Western Pygmy-Blue (Brephidium exilis)
Eastern Pygmy-Blue (Brephidium pseudofea)
Eastern Tailed-Blue (Cupido comyntas)
Spring Azure (Celastrina ladon)
Atlantic Holly Azure (Celastrina idella)
Summer Azure (Celastrina neglecta)
Echo Azure (Celastrina echo)
Appalachian Azure (Celastrina neglectamajor)
Dusky Azure (Celastrina nigra)
Silvery Blue (Glaucopsyche lygdamus)
Western Square-dotted Blue (Euphilotes battoides)
Reakirt's Blue (Echinargus isola)
Miami Blue (Cyclargus thomasi)
Ceraunus Blue (Hemiargus ceraunus)
Anna's Blue (Plebejus anna)
Boisduval's Blue (Plebejus icarioides)

Riodinidae - Metalmarks

Little Metalmark (Calephelis virginiensis)
Northern Metalmark (Calephelis borealis)
Fatal Metalmark (Calephelis nemesis)
Rounded Metalmark (Calephelis perditalis)
Red-bordered Metalmark (Caria ino)
Blue Metalmark (Lasaia sula)
Red-bordered Pixie (Melanis pixe)


Nymphalidae - Brushfoots

Snouts (Libytheinae)
American Snout (Libytheana carinenta)

Milkweed Butterflies (Danainae)
Monarch (Danaus plexippus)
Queen (Danaus gilippus)
Soldier (Danaus eresimus)

Longwings (Heliconiinae)
Gulf Fritillary (Agraulis vanillae)
Julia Heliconian (Dryas iulia)
Banded Orange Heliconian (Dryadula phaetusa)
Zebra Heliconian (Heliconius charithonia)
Erato Heliconian (Heliconius erato)
Variegated Fritillary (Euptoieta claudia)
Mexican Fritillary (Euptoieta hegesia)
Diana Fritillary (Speyeria diana)
Great Spangled Fritillary (Speyeria cybele)
Aphrodite Fritillary (Speyeria aphrodite)
Hydaspe Fritillary (Speyeria hydaspe)
Meadow Fritillary (Boloria bellona)
Pacific Fritillary (Boloria epithore)

True Brushfoots (Nymphalinae)
Theona Checkerspot (Chlosyne theona)
Bordered Patch (Chlosyne lacinia)
Crimson Patch (Chlosyne janais)
Silvery Checkerspot (Chlosyne nycteis)
Hoffmann's Checkerspot (Chlosyne hoffmanni)
Elada Checkerspot (Texola elada)
Field Crescent (Phyciodes pulchella)
Tulcis Crescent (Anthanassa tulcis)
Texan Crescent (Anthanassa texana)
Vesta Crescent (Phyciodes graphica)
Mylitta Crescent (Phyciodes mylitta)
Phaon Crescent (Phyciodes phaon)
Pearl Crescent (Phyciodes tharos)
Mimic Crescent (Phyciodes incognitus)
Tawny Crescent (Phyciodes batesii maconensis)
Variable Checkerspot (Euphydryas chalcedona)
Baltimore Checkerspot (Euphydryas phaeton)
Common Buckeye (Junonia coenia)
Mangrove Buckeye (Junonia evarete)
Tropical Buckeye (Junonia genoveva)
White Peacock (Anartia jatrophae)
Banded Peacock (Anartia fatima)
Malachite (Siproeta stelenes)
Rusty-tipped Page (Siproeta epaphus)
Question Mark (Polygonia interrogationis)
Eastern Comma (Polygonia comma)
Green Comma (Polygonia faunus)
Hoary Comma (Polygonia gracilis)
Gray Comma (Polygonia progne)
Mourning Cloak (Nymphalis antiopa)
California Tortoiseshell (Nymphalis californica)
Red Admiral (Vanessa atalanta)
Painted Lady (Vanessa cardui)
American Lady (Vanessa virginiensis)

Admirals and Relatives (Limenitidinae)
Red-spotted Purple (Limenitis arthemis astyanax)
Viceroy (Limenitis archippus)
Lorquin's Admiral (Limenitis lorquini)
Band-celled Sister (Adelpha fessonia)
Ruddy Daggerwing (Marpesia petreus)
Common Mestra (Mestra amymone)
Dingy Purplewing (Eunica monima)
Florida Purplewing (Eunica tatila)
Mexican Bluewing (Myscelia ethusa)
Variable Cracker (Hamadryas feronia)

Leafwings (Charaxinae)
Tropical Leafwing (Anaea aidea)

Emperors (Apaturinae)
Hackberry Emperor (Asterocampa celtis)
Tawny Emperor (Asterocampa clyton)

Satyrs and Wood-Nymphs (Satyrinae)
Southern Pearly Eye (Enodia portlandia)
Northern Pearly Eye (Enodia anthedon)
Creole Pearly Eye (Enodia creola)
Appalachian Brown (Lethe appalachia)
Gemmed Satyr (Cyllopsis gemma)
Carolina Satyr (Hermeuptychia sosybius)
Hermes Satyr (Hermeuptychia hermes)
Georgia Satyr (Neonympha areolata)
Helicta Satyr (Neonympha helicta)
Little Wood Satyr (Megisto cymela)
Common Ringlet (Coenonympha tullia)
Common Wood-Nymph (Cercyonis pegala)
Small Wood Nymph (Cercyonis oetus)
Great Arctic (Oeneis nevadensis)

Hesperiidae - Skippers

Spread-wing Skippers (Pyrginae)
Mangrove Skipper (Phocides pigmalion)
Zilpa Longtail (Chioides zilpa)
Emerald Aguna (Aguna claxon)
Silver-spotted Skipper (Epargyreus clarus)
Zestos Skipper (Epargyreus zestos)
Hammock Skipper (Polygonus leo)
Long-tailed Skipper (Urbanus proteus)
Dorantes Longtail (Urbanus dorantes)
Brown Longtail (Urbanus procne)
Two-barred Flasher (Astraptes fulgerator)
Golden Banded-Skipper (Autochton cellus)
Hoary Edge (Achalarus lyciades)
Coyote Cloudywing (Achalarus toxeus)
Southern Cloudywing (Thorybes bathyllus)
Northern Cloudywing (Thorybes pylades)
Confused Cloudywing (Thorybes confusis)
Fritzgaertner's Flat (Celaenorrhinus fritzgaertneri)
Mimosa Skipper (Cogia calchas)
Glazed Pellicia (Pellicia arina)
Mazans Scallopwing (Staphylus mazans)
Hayhurst's Scallopwing (Staphylus hayhurstii)
Texas Powdered Skipper (Systasea pulverulenta)
Northern Sicklewing (Eantis tamenund)
Brown-banded Skipper (Timochares ruptifasciata)
White-patched Skipper (Chiomara georgina)
Florida Duskywing (Ephyriades brunnea)
Dreamy Duskywing (Erynnis icelus)
Sleepy Duskywing (Erynnis brizo)
Juvenal's Duskywing (Erynnis juvenalis)
Horace's Duskywing (Erynnis horatius)
Mournful Duskywing (Erynnis tristis)
Mottled Duskywing (Erynnis martialis)
Zarucco Duskywing (Erynnis zarucco)
Funereal Duskywing (Erynnis funeralis)
Wild Indigo Duskywing (Erynnis baptisiae)
Persius Duskywing (Erynnis persius)
Appalachian Grizzled Skipper (Pyrgus [centaureae] wyandot)
Common Checkered-Skipper (Pyrgus communis)
Tropical Checkered-Skipper (Pyrgus oileus)
Turk's-cap White-Skipper (Heliopetes macaira)
Laviana White-Skipper (Heliopetes laviana)
Veined White-Skipper (Heliopetes arsalte)
Common Sootywing (Pholisora catullus)




Grass Skippers (Hesperiinae)
Saturnus Skipper (Callimormus saturnus)
Swarthy Skipper (Nastra lherminier)
Julia's Skipper (Nastra julia)
Three-spotted Skipper (Cymaenes tripunctus)
Fawn-spotted Skipper (Cymaenes trebius)
Clouded Skipper (Lerema accius)
Least Skipper (Ancyloxypha numitor)
Orange Skipperling (Copaeodes aurantiaca)
Southern Skipperling (Copaeodes minimus)
European Skipper (Thymelicus lineola)
Fiery Skipper (Hylephila phyleus)
Western Branded Skipper (Hesperia colorado)
Leonard's Skipper (Hesperia leonardus)
Cobweb Skipper (Hesperia metea)
Dotted Skipper (Hesperia attalus)
Meske's Skipper (Hesperia meskei)
Indian Skipper (Hesperia sassacus)
Sachem (Atalopedes campestris)
Peck's Skipper (Polites peckius)
Tawny-edged Skipper (Polites themistocles)
Baracoa Skipper (Polites baracoa)
Crossline Skipper (Polites origenes)
Crossline/Tawny-edged Skipper ID (Polites origenes/themistocles)
Long Dash (Polites mystic)
Sonora Skipper (Polites sonora)
Whirlabout (Polites vibex)
Southern Broken-Dash (Wallengrenia otho)
Northern Broken-Dash (Wallengrenia egeremet)
Little Glassywing (Pompeius verna)
Pompeius Skipper (Pompeius pompeius)
Arogos Skipper (Atrytone arogos arogos)
Delaware Skipper (Anatrytone logan)
Byssus Skipper (Problema byssus)
Rare Skipper (Problema bulenta)
Woodland Skipper (Ochlodes sylvanoides)
Hobomok Skipper (Poanes hobomok)
Zabulon Skipper (Poanes zabulon)
Aaron's Skipper (Poanes aaroni)
Yehl Skipper (Poanes yehl)
Broad-winged Skipper (Poanes viator)
Common Mellana (Quasimellana eulogius)
Palatka Skipper (Euphyes pilatka)
Dion Skipper (Euphyes dion)
Dukes's Skipper (Euphyes dukesi)
Berry's Skipper (Euphyes berryi)
Two-spotted Skipper (Euphyes bimacula)
Dun Skipper (Euphyes vestris)
Monk Skipper (Asbolis capucinus)
Dusted Skipper (Atrytonopsis hianna)
Loammi Skipper (Atrytonopsis loammi)
Bronze Roadside-Skipper (Amblyscirtes aenus)
Pepper and Salt Skipper (Amblyscirtes hegon)
Carolina Roadside-Skipper (Amblyscirtes carolina)
Reversed Roadside-Skipper (Amblyscirtes reversa)
Lace-winged Roadside-Skipper (Amblyscirtes aesculapius)
Common Roadside-Skipper (Amblyscirtes vialis)
Dusky Roadside-Skipper (Amblyscirtes alternata)
Celia's Roadside-Skipper (Amblyscirtes celia)
Eufala Skipper (Lerodea eufala)
Olive-clouded Skipper (Lerodea arabus)
Twin-spot Skipper (Oligoria maculata)
Brazilian Skipper (Calpodes ethlius)
Salt Marsh Skipper (Panoquina panoquin)
Obscure Skipper (Panoquina panoquinoides)
Ocola Skipper (Panoquina ocola)
Purple-washed Skipper (Panoquina lucas)
Evans's Skipper (Panoquina evansi)
Violet-banded Skipper (Nyctelius nyctelius)

Giant-Skippers (Megathyminae)
Yucca Giant-Skipper (Megathymus yuccae)


Recommended Butterfly Books

Though web sites are helpful, it's much easier to learn how to identify butterflies by studying good books. There are so many available now, it can be difficult to figure out which ones to get. Here are a few to get you started. If you would like to help support this web site, please click on the images below to buy through Amazon.

Field Guides

Butterflies Through Binoculars: The East
by Jeffrey Glassberg (1999)

Though out of date, this is still a useful photographic guide, recommended for beginners and backyard butterfliers, since there are fewer Western species to confuse you. Many folks start out with this guide, then move to others as their skills and interests develop. Does not cover south Texas.

Butterflies of North America
by Jim P. Brock and Kenn Kaufman (2006)

Fantastic comprehensive photographic guide aimed at beginners, but also very useful for experts. Covers all of North America north of Mexico, including south Texas. My other primary guide. I contributed one photograph to the 2003 edition.

National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Butterflies
by Robert M. Pyle (1981)

A classic; the original guide with photos of living butterflies. The taxonomy is a little out of date, but that can be a useful thing since it has photos of former species that have since been lumped into subspecies, such as the Emperors of southern Texas. Great as a secondary reference.

A Field Guide to Eastern Butterflies
by Paul A. Opler and Vichai Malikul (1998)

Not recommended. This book has paintings of specimens instead of photographs of living butterflies, which makes field identification difficult, especially for skippers. Outdated and discouraging to beginners.

Caterpillar Field Guides

A Field Guide to Caterpillars
by Thomas J. Allen, James P. Brock, and Jeffrey Glassberg (2005)

A photographic guide to butterfly caterpillars. I don't have it yet, but it looks great!

Caterpillars of Eastern North America: A Guide to Identification and Natural History
by David L. Wagner (2005)

Another photographic guide to caterpillars, but this one covers moths as well as butterflies. A fantastic resource.

Reference Books

Butterflies of the East Coast: An Observer's Guide
by Rick Cech, Guy Tudor (2005)

A great new reference book for those seeking more than just identification. It has lots of great photographs, but is not a field guide.

The Butterflies of North America: A Natural History and Field Guide
by James A. Scott (1992)

Though the taxonomy is out of date, this is still the standard reference book for those who want to know everything they can about the butterflies of North America, with comprehensive information and photographs of specimens. Not recommended for beginners and more useful for identifying specimens than live butterflies. By no stretch of the imagination is this great tome a "field guide"!


Butterflies of the Carolinas & Virginias
by Randy Emmitt (2005)

For those who would like a butterfly ID program to run on their computer, this new CD-ROM (not a book) offers comprehensive coverage for our region. I contributed several photos.

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All photographs and text ©2013 by Will Cook unless otherwise noted.